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Try out PMC Labs and tell us what you think. Learn More. The datasets generated for this study are available on request to the corresponding author. Another aim was to explore the possible associations of the acceptance of sugar relationships with psychological functioning in an intimate partner relationship and in a sexual relationship and with certain socially undesirable personality traits.
These findings suggest that a relatively high level of acceptance of sugar relationships is part of a mating strategy focused on opportunities of maximizing resources. This utilitarian, risk-taking and exploitative attitude is characteristic to a fast life history strategy, and it is a fundamental organizing principle of psychological and sexual functioning in intimate partner relationships. This presumably evolved, complex bio-psycho-social process affected mate choice throughout human history and even in modern populations. Differences in mate choice preferences related to sexual dimorphism e.
Since male but not female reproductive success was essentially influenced by the of available sexual partners in the evolutionary past, maximizing the of partners is still a characteristic sexual strategy among men. This short-term mating strategy i. Furthermore, promiscuous sexual behavior potentially entail direct parental investment for women due to pregnancy but not for men. For this reason, men are more willing to engage in short-term sexual encounters e. The sexual strategies theory Buss and Schmitt, , describes transactional sex e.
Salmon goes as far as suggesting that since men are much more willing than women to engage in purely physical casual sexual encounters, and they actively seek such encounters, this preference is a clearly favorable condition for transactional sex. Heterosexual men are generally attracted to women in their twenties, independently of their own age, whereas very few men are exclusively attracted to very young or very old women e.
This pattern has been demonstrated in modern Western and non-Western cultures Buunk et al. In sum, men are attracted to young women, while they have limited opportunity to engage in sexual activity with such women depending on their own attractiveness, social status, the time and energy required by courtship, and the generally poor prospects for a satisfying long-term relationship with a much younger woman , thus they strive to fulfill their needs through transactional sex e. Arunachalam and Shah reported earnings data of a sample of more than 4, Mexican and Ecuadorian sex workers.
The association between income and fertility is corroborated by the finding that the same age-related trend in income is not shown by female non-prostitutes, whose income peaks in their late forties Arunachalam and Shah, Similar association between age and other cues to female fertility have been found in a study of Polish prostitutes Prokop et al.
A study conducted with American female escorts a common euphemism for sexual services found that younger women charged higher fees than their older counterparts Griffith et al. The costs of sex are apparently higher for young escorts. These findings are consistent with those reported by Dunn , who found that younger escorts advertising their sexual services online offered services at higher prices than older escorts. Partners usually spend leisure time together, and sexual activity is only involved if both partners give their consent.
Such transactional sexual relationships were quite common as early as centuries ago Nelson, Nowadays, due to digital technology, potential partners are able to find each other more easily e. Sugar relationship are not banned by law in most Western countries even though the related legal issues have been fiercely debated not only from a legal viewpoint but also from social and moral perspectives e.
One of the most debated legal issues is whether sugar relationships are to be considered a form of prostitution e. In several countries, where prostitution and active support for prostitution is banned, the availability of web services deed for managing sugar relationships are not restricted or limited e. That is, these countries maintain a legal distinction between being involved in prostitution and being involved in a sugar relationship. Those protesting against sugar relationships on a moral basis target their efforts at eliminating this legal vacuum e.
The nature of sugar relationship has been studied in various scientific approaches. Feminist research focuses on issues such as, for example, the role of power and agency in sugar relationship e. A study adopting an economic viewpoint found that a relatively large proportion of young women pursuing expensive university studies registered at websites deated to arrange sugar relationship, which are considered by the author as a form of human capital investment Mixon, Preble et al. Betzer et al. Other findings also revealed socially undesirable personality traits in university students involved in transactional sex e.
Accordingly, gaining better insight into the psychological aspects of sugar relationship e. One reason for this is that most participants in questionnaire and interview studies had not been directly involved in a sugar relationship or transactional sex. For example, in the study by Betzer et al. Edwards assessed participants, of which 94 reported to have at least once engaged in transactional sex.
studies exploring the psychological processes involved in man-woman relationships primarily focused on phenomena such as romantic love, sociosexuality and sexual motivation rather than on transactional sex. Therefore, the combination of these related theories is important to adequately contextualize the issues concerning the motivation for engaging in a sugar relationship. Love styles can be described as systems of attitudes and beliefs characterized by different emotional tones, which are related to certain personality traits Lee, Three primary love styles can be distinguished: Eros passionate, romantic; seeking the ideal and perfect love , Ludus playful, uncommitted love; looking at love as a game , and Storge friendship evolves to love.
Secondary love styles are balanced mixtures of the three primary styles: Pragma practical, rational love is a combination of Storge and Ludus, Mania obsessive or addictive love is a combination of Eros and Ludus, and Agape altruistic or unselfish love , a combination of Eros and Storge.
Thus, the model consists of a total of six different love types, which describe individual differences in love e. This classification is relatively complex, comprehensive, and consistent with everyday experience and language Hendrick et al. Frey and Hojjat found consistent positive correlations between a preference for commitment and all love attitudes apart from Ludus, which negatively correlated with commitment.
These were supported by other findings establishing a positive relationship between Ludus and unrestricted sociosexual orientation e. The term sociosexuality originally referred to the diversity of male and female sexual behavior Jonason et al. This initial construct was extended incorporating short-term and long-term mating interest, past sexual behavior Jackson and Kirkpatrick, and the desire as a new component Penke and Asendorpf, Accordingly, an instrument was developed to measure individual differences in attitudes toward casual sex and related forms of behavior Simpson and Gangestad, and was subsequently supplemented with the desire component Penke and Asendorpf, studies on the psychological contexts of sociosexuality have revealed that men are more willing to engage in casual sex than women, which applies globally Schmitt, ; Lippa, In addition, unrestricted socio-sexuality is positively associated with mating effort maximization, while restricted sociosexuality is more closely related to parental efforts Valentova et al.
Finally, unrestricted sociosexuality positively correlates with openness to casual sex among online dating site users Hallam et al. Sexual motives are commonly defined as the conscious and subjective reasons stated by men and women for engaging in sexual activity e. A of studies revealed sex differences in sexual motivation e. Armstrong and Reissing studied the associations between relationship type and sexual motivation, and they found more pronounced physical motives in those who preferred casual sexual relationships, while those currently having a committed relationship showed stronger emotional motives.
Developing emotional attachment to a prospective partner is not a necessary condition for engaging in casual sex, since neither partner expects to be involved in a committed relationship offering long-term benefits. Initial with the YSEX? Such an instrument would enable researchers to obtain a more detailed picture of the psychological aspects of sugar relationship by assessing samples of both directly involved individuals and the average population.
In consistence with the above discussed literature, the present research focused on the following two aims: 1 development of a self-report instrument measuring the acceptance of sugar relationships, and its validation with other measures of psychological functioning in intimate partner-, and sexual relationships; 2 verification of the hypothesis that the acceptance of sugar relationships is positively associated with self-beneficial behaviors in intimate partner relationships, a game-playing love style, and unrestricted sociosexuality.
The validation process tested the following hypotheses. Based on the fundamental psychological characteristics of male and female mating preferences and strategies e. Based on the of research exploring the relationship between transactional sex and materialistic values e.
The following predictions were derived from the above hypothesis. Based on findings on multifactorial sexual motivation e. Related to the former prediction, we expected individuals with a more positive attitude toward sugar relationships to view intimacy and commitment as unnecessary for getting involved in sexual relationships as reflected in a negative association of the ASR-YWMS with relational motives.
In line with findings on the psychological correlates of openness to casual sex e. Transactional sexual relationships generally lack the emotional intimacy characteristic of committed relationships e. Accordingly, we hypothesized that individuals with a more positive attitude toward sugar relationships would view love as a source of pleasure without commitment as reflected in a positive association between the ASR-YWMS and the Ludus love style. Based on findings on love styles, we hypothesized that individuals with a more positive attitude toward sugar relationships would view sexual attraction, commitment, and friendship as inessential ingredients of love as reflected in a negative association of the ASR-YWMS with the Eros, Agape, and Storge love styles.
Item generation did not follow the procedure conventional in psychological research e. The choice of the instrument was based on the well-established empirical finding that the acceptance of cosmetic surgery is related to self-objectification e. The ACSS comprises three subscales, which structure was kept in the scale adapted for the acceptance of sugar relationships.
That is, the items were generated by translating the 15 items of the ACSS Henderson-King and Henderson-King, into Hungarian and then rewording each item in such a way that the original subject i. Since it was hypothesized that younger and older parties would be driven by different motives to engage in a sugar relationship, another version of the instrument was also developed for an older age group entitled Acceptance of Sugar Relationships in Older Men and Women Scale; ASR-OMWS.
Although data were simultaneously collected in the two age groups, only the version developed for younger people and the related findings are presented in this paper. Findings on the older age group will be published in a separate paper. Some of the items of the newly acquired questionnaire were highly similar. First, we used confirmatory factor analysis CFA to check the unidimensionality of the latent variables as the item response theory IRT requires unidimensional latent variables. For this purpose, we used the graded response model GRM of item response theory Samejima, and examined the psychometric properties of each item.
Then, we observed the item information functions IIF of these items and selected those with the highest values from each subscale. Some of the items had very similar IIF curves and were synonymous in meaning. From these, we selected the one that we thought had a better wording and represented the latent variable it was intended to measure better.
Based on the IIFs, we selected items 1 and 2 from the first subscale items 1, 2, 4, 5, and 14 but they were very similar, and thus, we decided to only use item 2 that also had a slightly better IIF see Figure 1. We selected items 11, 12, and 13 from the second subscale items 9, 11, 12, 13, and 15 but items 11 and 12 were very similar so we chose to drop item 11 and keep only items 12 and Finally, we selected items 3, 6 and 7 from the third subscale items 3, 6, 7, 8, and 10 but items 6 and 7, again, had close to identical IIFs, therefore we chose to retain items 3 and 7 only.
Since only a small of items remained after the analyses, keeping the original three-factor model would not be impractical. Thus, we propose to use the questionnaire with a single factor comprising all five items nr 2, 3, 7, 12, and After giving informed consent, participants women and 47 men completed the questionnaires.
Relationship status: currently single Registered at a dating site Currently involved in a sugar relationship 4. Total of sexual partners: 0 3. Place of residence: small village 4.Tampa KS sex dating
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